Associate Professor Krisztina Valter-Kocsi

MD, PhD, GradCert HE, SFHEA
Chair of Medical Science, ANU Medical School
Associate Professor in Anatomy

I received my medical degree (MD) in 1986 in Budapest, Hungary and became a Fellow of the Association of Hungarian Ophthalmologists in 1990. I completed my PhD at The University of Sydney in 2000 on the role of the environment in the initiation or progression of retinal degenerations. Thereafter, I took on a postdoctoral research position in the Department of Anatomy and Histology at The University of Sydney. During my years at USYD I have participated in and formed many scientific collaborations, including a long-standing collaborative relationship with Prof Silvia Bisti, at the Universitá di L'Aquila, Italy. In early 2003 I left The University of Sydney and took up a postdoctoral position at the Research School of Biological Sciences at The ANU. I became a chief investigator in the ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science in 2006. I also received a graduate certificate in teaching in higher education in 2008 (ANU,CEDAM)

Specialisation

  • Anatomy

Research interests

My research has been focused on degenerative diseases of the retina, from the molecular and cellular level, to the clinical. My published work has made an impact in two particular areas: (1) The role of oxygen levels in the stability and degeneration of photoreceptors; and (2) the retina's ability to self-protect against stress, using the regulated expression of protective factors. In the former area I was the first to demonstrate the oxygen dependence of several forms of photoreceptor degeneration; in the latter I have shown the sites of trophic factor binding to organelles of the photoreceptor. These lines of research have led to the formulation and testable hypotheses concerning the mechanisms that either damage or protect photoreceptors. Using the light-induced model of retinal degeneration, I was able to test the effects of protective factors and investigate their action mechanism on the stressed retina. To characterise this model further, I started to investigate the role of mitochondrial damage, metabolic changes and oxidative damage in light-induced photoreceptor injury.

In the past 5 years I have been working on cell biology-based, non-invasive therapeutic approaches to manage retinal degenerations. I have been assessing the effects of light management in collaboration with Prof Jonathan Stone (USYD), photobiomodulation (using near-infrared light irradiation) in collaboration with Prof Janis Eells (University of Milwaukee, US) and dietary saffron in collaboration with Prof Silvia Bisti (University of L'Aquila, Italy) on the progress of retinal photoreceptor damage or death. I tested these approaches on models of retinal degeneration, with both environmental and genetic background. I was able to demonstrate that light management is a relatively simple and cost-effective way to slow retinal degeneration, at least in some forms of retinal degenerations (in the P23H-3 model). I also showed that photobiomodulation can slow degeneration in the developing P23H-3 retina, as well as protect from light-induced degeneration. Experiments with saffron supplementation also showed that it is potentially a valuable tool in slowing or preventing some forms of degenerations. In collaborations with Dr Ulrike Mathesius (RSB, ANU) we are exploring effects of photobiomodulation on protein level changes.
In the past 3 years I have started to look at the role of complement in the initiation and maintenance of retinal degeneration. In collaboration with Prof Jan Provis (ANUMS), we are investigating the events that activate the complement system and could be responsible for the loss pf photoreceptors leading to blindness in conditions such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recently, I formed collaboration with Profs Girish Kotwal (US), Goδmundur J. Arason (Iceland) and Gudni À. Alfredsson (Iceland) to investigate the possible beneficial effecto of a novel complement inhibitor in the retina.

Groups

  • Fernando, N, Natoli, R, Racic, T et al 2018, 'The use of the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) in the rat retina', PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science), vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1-15pp.
  • Lu, Y, Fernando, N, Natoli, R et al 2018, '670nm light treatment following retinal injury modulates Muller cell gliosis: Evidence from in vivo and in vitro stress models', Experimental Eye Research, vol. 169, pp. 1-12pp.
  • Natoli, R, Fernando, N, Dahlenburg, T et al 2018, 'Obesity-induced metabolic disturbance drives oxidative stress and complement activation in the retinal environment', Molecular Vision, vol. 24, pp. 201-217.
  • Chu-Tan, J, Rutar, M, Saxena, K et al 2018, 'MicroRNA-124 Dysregulation is Associated With Retinal Inflammation and Photoreceptor Death in the Degenerating Retina', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 4094-4105pp.
  • Fernando, N, Wooff, Y, Aggio-Bruce, R et al 2018, 'Photoreceptor survival is regulated by GSTO1-1 in the degenerating retina', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 4362-4374pp.
  • Natoli R, Mason E, Jiao H, Chuah A, Patel HR, Fernando N, Valter K, Wells CA, Provis J, Rutar M 2018, 'Dynamic Interplay of Innate and Adaptive Immunity During Sterile Retinal Inflammation: Insights From the Transcriptome', Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 9, no. 1666, pp. 1-17pp.
  • Jiao, H, Natoli, R, Fernando, N et al 2017, 'Retinal monocyte-derived complement, not systemically derived complement contributes to the early onset of focal retinal degeneration', Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology (ARVO) 2017, ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC, Rockville, Maryland, United States, pp. 1-2.
  • Natoli, R, Fernando, N, Jiao, H et al 2017, 'Retinal Macrophages Synthesize C3 and Activate Complement in AMD and in Models of Focal Retinal Degeneration', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 2977-2990pp.
  • Colibaba, A, Calma, A, Webb, A et al 2017, 'Exploring Deep Space - Uncovering the Anatomy of Periventricular Structures to Reveal the Lateral Ventricles of the Human Brain', Journal of Visualized Experiments, no. 128, p. 8.
  • Chao de la Barca, J, Huang, N-T, Jiao, H, Natoli, R, Tcherkez, G et al 2017, 'Retinal metabolic events in preconditioning light stress as revealed by wide-spectrum targeted metabolomics', Metabolomics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. -.
  • Lu, Y, Natoli, R, Madigan, M et al 2017, 'Photobiomodulation with 670 nm light ameliorates Müller cell-mediated activation of microglia and macrophages in retinal degeneration', Experimental Eye Research, vol. 165, pp. 78-89.
  • Natoli, R, Fernando, N, Madigan, M et al 2017, 'Microglia-derived IL-1ß promotes chemokine expression by Müller cells and RPE in focal retinal degeneration', Molecular Neurodegeneration, vol. 12, no. 31, pp. 1-11pp.
  • Raupach, A, Webb, A & Valter, K 2017, Eclipse.
  • Raupach, A, Webb, A & Valter, K 2017, MRIs.
  • Raupach, A, Webb, A & Valter, K 2017, Swimming.
  • Raupach, A, Webb, A & Valter, K 2017, Vital Organs.
  • Raupach, A, Webb, A & Valter, K 2017, Xrays.
  • Natoli, R, Jiao, H, Barnett, N et al 2016, 'A model of progressive photo-oxidative degeneration and inflammation in the pigmented C57BL/6J mouse retina', Experimental Eye Research, vol. 147, pp. 114-127.
  • Fernando, N, Racic, T, Natoli, R et al 2016, 'Chronic accumulations of complement-expressing microglia/macrophages accompany the progressive expansion of the retinal lesion in an animal model of atrophic AMD', 2016 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, United States of America, pp. Meeting Abstract 2222.
  • Rutar, M, Fernando, N, Natoli, R et al 2016, 'The value of broad spectrum chemokine inhibitors in modulating microglia/macrophage-mediated inflammation in a model of atrophic AMD', 2016 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, United States of America, pp. -.
  • Bouwer, H, Valter, K & Webb, AL 2015, 'Current integration of dissection in medical education in Australia and New Zealand: Challenges and successes', Anatomical Sciences Education.
  • Chu-Tan, J, Rutar, M, Saxena, K et al 2016, 'Efficacy of 670 nm Light Therapy to Protect against Photoreceptor Cell Death Is Dependent on the Severity of Damage', International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2016, pp. 1-13.
  • Eells, J, Gopalakrishnan, S & Valter, K 2016, 'Near-Infrared Photobiomodulation in Retinal Injury and Disease', in Catherine Bowes Rickman, Matthew M. LaVail, Robert E. Anderson, Christian Grimm (ed.), Retinal Degenerative Diseases Mechanisms and Experimental Therapy, Springer, Online.
  • Fernando, N, Natoli, R, Valter, K et al 2016, 'The broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor NR58-3.14.3 modulates macrophage-mediated inflammation in the diseased retina', Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 13, pp. -.
  • Marinov, V, Webb, A & Valter, K 2016, 'Teaching is the best way to learn: student-led screencasting', Medical Education, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 1155-1156pp.
  • Natoli, R, Rutar, M, Lu, Y et al 2016, 'The Role of Pyruvate in Protecting 661W Photoreceptor-Like Cells Against Light-Induced Cell Death', Current Eye Research, vol. Published online: 23 May 2016.
  • Kent, A, Broom, M, Parr, V et al 2015, 'A safety and feasibility study of the use of 670 nm red light in premature neonates', Journal of Perinatology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 493-496pp.
  • Jiao, H, Natoli, R, Valter, K et al 2015, 'Spatiotemporal cadence of macrophage polarisation in a model of light-induced retinal degeneration', PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science), vol. 10, no. 12, pp. -.
  • Rutar, M, Natoli, R, Chia, R et al 2015, 'Chemokine-mediated inflammation in the degenerating retina is coordinated by Müller cells, activated microglia, and retinal pigment epithelium', Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1-15.
  • Kotwal, G, Fernando, N, Zhou, J et al 2014, 'Exploring the potential benefits of vaccinia virus complement control protein in controlling complement activation in pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases', Molecular Immunology, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 204-209.
  • Fiorani, L, Maccarone, R, Fernando, N et al 2014, 'Slow-release Drug Delivery through Elvax 40W to the Rat Retina: Implications for the Treatment of Chronic Conditions', Journal of Visualized Experiments, no. 91, pp. 6pp.
  • Barbosa, MS, Natoli, R, Valter, K et al 2014, 'Integral-geometry characterization of photobiomodulation effects on retinal vessel morphology', Biomedical Optics Express, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 2317-2332.
  • Fiorani, L, Maccarone, R, Fernando, N et al 2014, 'Slow release drug delivery through Elvax for the long-term treatment of the retina using APB', Journal of Visualized Experiments, vol. 91.
  • Rutar, M, Valter, K, Natoli, R et al 2014, 'Synthesis and propagation of complement C3 by microglia/monocytes in the aging retina', PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science), vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1-10.
  • Valter, K, Albarracin, R, Natoli, R et al 2014, '670nm - A stop sign for retinal degenerations?', 2014 WALT Biennial Congress and NAALT Annual Conference, ed. Laakso E.-L., Conference Organising Committee, TBC, pp. 33-38.
  • Vlahos, L, Knott, B, Valter, K et al 2014, 'Photoreceptor topography and spectral sensitivity in the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)', Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 522, no. 15, pp. 3423-3436.
  • Kirk, D, Gopalakrishnan, S, Schmitt, H et al 2013, 'Photobiomodulation reduces photoreceptor death and regulates cytoprotection in early states of P23H retinal dystrophy', Mechanisms for Low-Light Therapy VIII, SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, San Francisco, CA, pp. 1-10.
  • Fitzgerald, M, Hodgetts, S, Van Den Heuvel, C et al 2013, 'Red/near-infrared irradiation therapy for treatment of central nervous system injuries and disorders', Reviews in the Neurosciences, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 205-226.
  • Albarracin, R, Natoli, R, Rutar, M et al 2013, '670 nm light mitigates oxygen-induced degeneration in C57BL/6J mouse retina', BMC Neuroscience, vol. 14, pp. -.
  • Natoli, R, Valter, K, Barbosa, MS et al 2013, '670nm Photobiomodulation as a Novel Protection against Retinopathy of Prematurity: Evidence from Oxygen Induced Retinopathy Models', PLOS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. e72135.
  • Albarracin, R & Valter, K 2012, 'Treatment with 670-nm light protects the cone photoreceptors from white light-induced degeneration', in Matthew M. LaVail, John D. Ash Robert E. Anderson, Joe G. Hollyfi eld Christia (ed.), Retinal Degenerative Diseases, Springer, United States, pp. 121-128.
  • Natoli, R, Provis, J, Valter, K et al 2012, '670 NM Red Light: Protection Against Retinopathy of Prematurity', 43rd Annual Scientific Congress - Sharing the Vision, Wiley Online Library , Brisbane / online, p. 87.
  • Natoli, R, Valter, K, Soares Barbosa, M et al 2015, '591: Can 670Nm Red Light Protect Against Retinopathy of Prematurity and Reduce Lung Injury in a Neonatal Animal Model?', European Academy of Paediatric Societies (EAPS 2012), BMJ Publishing Group, United Kingdom.
  • Rutar, M, Natoli, R, Albarracin, R et al 2012, '670-nm light treatment reduces complement propagation following retinal degeneration', Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 9, no. 257, pp. -.
  • Rutar, M, Natoli, R, Provis, J et al 2012, 'Complement activation in retinal degeneration', in Matthew M. LaVail, John D. Ash Robert E. Anderson, Joe G. Hollyfi eld Christia (ed.), Retinal Degenerative Diseases, Springer, United States, pp. 31-36.
  • Valter, K & Albarracin, R 2012, '670 nm red light preconditioning supports Müller cell function: Evidence from the white light-induced damage model in the rat retina', Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 1418-1427.
  • Albarracin, R, Eells, J & Valter, K 2011, 'Photobiomodulation protects the retina from light-induced photoreceptor degeneration', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 3582-3592.
  • Natoli, R, Valter, K, Chrysostomou, V et al 2010, 'Morphological, functional and gene expression analysis of the hyperoxic mouse retina', Experimental Eye Research, vol. 92, pp. 306-314.
  • Rutar, M, Natoli, R, Kozulin, P et al 2011, 'Analysis of complement expression in light-induced retinal degeneration: Synthesis and deposition of C3 by microglia/macrophages is associated with focal photoreceptor degeneration', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 5347-5358.
  • Rutar, M, Natoli, R, Valter, K et al 2011, 'Early focal expression of the chemokine Ccl2 by Muller cells during exposure to damage-inducing bright continuous light', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 2379-2388.
  • Chrysostomou, V, Stone, J & Valter, K 2010, 'Differences in photoreceptor sensitivity to oxygen stress between Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats', in Robert E Anderson, Joe G Hollyfield & Matthew M LaVail (ed.), Retinal Degenerative Diseases: Laboratory and Therapeutic Investigations, Landes Bioscience/Springer Science+Business Media, Berlin, pp. 473-479.
  • Natoli, R, Zhu, Y, Valter, K et al 2010, 'Gene and noncoding RNA regulation underlying photoreceptor protection: microarray study of dietary antioxidant saffron and photobiomodulation in rat retina', Molecular Vision, vol. 16, pp. 1801-1822.
  • Rutar, M, Provis, J & Valter, K 2010, 'Brief exposure to damaging light causes focal recruitment of macrophages, and long-term destabilization of photoreceptors in the albino rat retina', Current Eye Research, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 631-643.
  • Valter, K & Akerlind, G 2010, 'Introducing Students to Ways of Thinking and Acting Like a Researcher: A Case Study of Research-led Education in the Sciences', International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 89-97.
  • Zhu, Y, Natoli, R, Valter, K et al 2010, 'Differential gene expression in mouse retina related to regional differences in vulnerability to hyperoxia', Molecular Vision, vol. 16, pp. 740-755.
  • Zhu, Y, Natoli, R, Valter, K et al 2010, 'Microarray Analysis of Hyperoxia Stressed Mouse Retina: Differential Gene Expression in the Inferior and Superior Region', in Robert E Anderson, Joe G Hollyfield & Matthew M LaVail (ed.), Retinal Degenerative Diseases: Laboratory and Therapeutic Investigations, Landes Bioscience/Springer Science+Business Media, Berlin, pp. 217-222.
  • Zhu, Y, Valter, K & Stone, J 2010, 'Environmental damage to the retina and preconditioning: Contrasting effects of light and hyperoxic stress', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 4821-4830.
  • Chrysostomou, V, Stone, J & Valter, K 2009, 'Life history of cones in the Rhodopsin-Mutant P23H-3 rat: Evidence of long-term survival', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1-10.
  • Chrysostomou, V, Valter, K & Stone, J 2009, 'Cone-rod dependence in the rat retina: variation with the rate of rod damage', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 3017-3023.
  • Valter, K, Kirk, D & Stone, J 2009, 'Optimising the structure and function of adult P23H-3 retina by light management in the juvenile and adult', Experimental Eye Research, vol. 89, pp. 1003-1011.
  • Chrysostomou, V, Stone, J, Stowe, S et al 2008, 'The status of cones in the Rhodopsin Mutant P23H-3 Retina: Light-regulated damage and repair in parallel with rods', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 1116-1125.
  • Eells, J, DeSmet, K, Kirk, D et al 2008, 'Photobiomodulation for the treatment of retinal injury in retinal degenerative diseases', Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy II Conference, ed. Ronald Waynant, Darrell Tata, Springer, USA, pp. 39-51.
  • Natoli, R, Provis, J, Valter, K et al 2008, 'Expression and role of the early-response gene Oxr1 in the hyperoxia-challenged mouse retina', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 4561-4567.
  • Natoli, R, Provis, J, Valter, K et al 2008, 'Gene regulation induced in the C57BL/6J mouse retina by hyperoxia: a temporal microarray study', Molecular Vision, vol. 14, pp. 1983-1994.
  • Stone, J & Valter, K 2008, 'Roles of oxygen in the stability of photoreceptors: evidence from mouse and other models of human disease', in Leo Chalupa and Robert Williams (ed.), Eye, Retina and Visual System of the Mouse, The MIT Press, USA, pp. 559-574.
  • Stone, J, van Driel, D, Valter, K et al 2008, 'The locations of mitochondria in mammalian photoreceptors: Relation to retinal vasculature', Brain Research, vol. 1189, pp. 58-69.
  • Valter, K, Kirk, D & Stone, J 2008, 'The potential of ambient light restriction to restore function to the degenerating P23H-3 rat retina', in R Anderson, M LaVail, J Hollyfield (ed.), Recent Advances in Retinal Degeneration, Springer, USA, pp. 193-199.
  • Bravo Nuevo, A, Williams, N, Valter, K et al 2007, 'Relationship between mitochondrial DNA damage and photoreceptor death in developing and adult retina, assessed in normal and degenerative rat strains', Mitochondrion, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 340-346.
  • Kirk, D, Eells, J, Chrysostomou, V et al 2006, 'Effect of 670 NM photon therapy on the ERG of non-degenerative and degenerataive retinae', Australasian Ophthalmic & Viual Sciences Meeting 2006, ed. Ophthalmic Research Institute of Australia, Conference Organising Committee, ANU Canberra, p. 1.
  • Chrysostomou, V, Valter, K & Stone, J 2006, 'Early signs of oxygen stress in the P23H retina', International Symposium on Retinal Degeneration 2006, Conference Organising Committee, Argentina, p. 1.
  • Chrysostomou, V, Valter, K & Stone, J 2006, 'Reversal of cone functional loss in the P23H-3 retina by management of ambient light', The Australasian Ophthalmic & Viual Sciences Meeting, ed. Ophthalmic Research Institute of Australia, Conference Organising Committee, ANU Canberra, p. 1.
  • Eells, J, Kirk, D, Cribb, J et al 2006, Near-infrared light therapy for retinitis pigmentosa, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.
  • Geller, S, Krowka, R, Valter, K et al 2006, 'Toxicity of Hyperoxia to the Retina: evidence from the mouse', in J G Hollyfield, R E Anderson, M M LaVail (ed.), Retinal Degenerative Diseases, Springer, USA, pp. 425-437.
  • Jozwick, C, Valter, K & Stone, J 2006, 'Reversal of functional loss in the P23H-3 rat retina by management of ambient light', Experimental Eye Research, vol. 83, pp. 1074-1080.
  • Valter, K & Stone, J 2006, 'Light management can restore function to the degenerating P23H-3 rat retina', International Society for Ocular Cell Biology, International Society for Ocular Cell Biology, Cambridge.
  • Zhu, Y, Valter, K, Provis, J et al 2006, 'Protective mechanisms in the retina: comparison of the protection induced by light stress and by hyperoxia', The Australasian Ophthalmic & Viual Sciences Meeting, ed. Ophthalmic Research Institute of Australia, Conference Organising Committee, ANU Canberra, p. 1.
  • Stone, J, Mervin, K, Walsh, N et al 2005, 'Photoreceptor stability and degeneration in mammalian retina: lessons from the edge', in Dr Philip L Penfold and Dr Jan M Provis (ed.), Macular Degeneration, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 149-165.
  • Valter, K, Bisti, S, Gargini, C et al 2005, 'Time Course of Neurotrophic Factor Upregulation and Retinal Protection against Light-Induced Damage after Optic Nerve Section', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1748-1754.
  • Wellard, J, Lee, D, Valter, K et al 2005, 'Photoreceptors in the rat retina are specifically vulnerable to both hypoxia and hyperoxia', Visual Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 501-507.
  • Gargini, C, Bisti, S, Demontis, G et al 2004, 'Electroretinogram changes associated with retinal upregulation of trophic factors: Observations following optic nerve section', Neuroscience, vol. 126, pp. 775-783.
  • Stone, J & Valter, K 2004, 'Roles of retinal macroglia in maintaining the stability of the retina', in E.E. Bittar (ed.), Non-neuronal Cells of the Nervous System: Function and Dysfunction - Part 1, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 295-313.
  • Yu, D, Cringle, S, Valter, K et al 2004, 'Photoreceptor death, trophic factor expression, retinal oxygen status, and photoreceptor function in the P23H rat', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 2013-2019.
  • Lee, D, Geller, S, Walsh, N et al 2003, 'Photoreceptor degeneration in PRO23HIS and S334 transgenic rats', in M LaVail, J Hollyfield, G Anderson (ed.), Retinal Degenerations: Mechanisms and Experimental Therapy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, pp. 297-302.
  • Valter, K, Bisti, S & Stone, J 2003, 'Location of CNTFR(alpha) on outer segments: Evidence of the site of action of CNTF in rat retina', Brain Research, vol. 985, pp. 169-175.
  • Valter, K, vanDriel, D, Bisti, S et al 2002, 'FGFR1 Expression and FGFR1-FGF-2 Colocalisation in Rat Retina: Sites of FGF-2 on Rat Photoreceptiors', Growth Factors, vol. 20, pp. 177-188.
  • Bowers, F, Valter, K, Chan, S et al 2001, 'Effects of oxygen and bFGF on the vulnerability of photoreceptors to light damage', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 804-815.
  • Walsh, N, Valter, K & Stone, J 2001, 'Cellular and subcellular patterns of expresson of bFGF and CNTF in the normal and light stressed adult rat retina', Experimental Eye Research, vol. 72, pp. 495-501.