Dr Neil Bailey

Senior Research Fellow, ANU School of Medicine and Psychology

Research interests

Dr Neil Bailey conducts a range of studies that explore how mental health can be improved. In particular, he examines brain activity in individuals who practice mindfulness, and brain activity predictors of response to depression treatments. The goal of his mindfulness research is to explain the mechanism of action by which meditation leads to improved mental health. His long term goal is to contribute to the case for testing whether mindfulness embedded in the core curriculums of high schools could improve mental health across society. His research also assesses measures of brain activity that predict who will respond to a brain stimulation treatment for depression. The goal of this research is to enhance the efficacy of current depression treatments.

Areas of expertise

  • Cognition
  • Memory And Attention
  • Learning, Motivation And Emotion
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Psychophysiology
  • Neurosciences
  1. Neil W Bailey, Ben D Fulcher, Bridget Caldwell, Aron T Hill, Bernadette Fitzgibbon, Hanneke van Dijk, Paul B Fitzgerald (2023). Uncovering a stability signature of brain dynamics associated with meditation experience using massive time-series feature extraction. BioRxiv.
  2. Neil W Bailey, Mana Biabani, Aron T Hill, Aleks Miljevic, Nigel C Rogasch, Brittany McQueen, Oscar W Murphy, Paul Fitzgerald (2023). Introducing RELAX: An automated pre-processing pipeline for cleaning EEG data - Part 1: Algorithm and Application to Oscillations. Clinical Neurophysiology.
  3. Neil W Bailey, Aron T Hill, Mana Biabani, Oscar W Murphy, Nigel C Rogasch, Brittany McQueen, Aleks Miljevic, Paul Fitzgerald (2023). RELAX Part 2: A fully automated EEG data cleaning algorithm that is applicable to Event-Related-Potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology.
  4. Neil W Bailey, Oliver Baell, Jake Elijah Payne, Gregory Humble, Harry Geddes, Isabella Cahill, Aron T Hill, Sung Wook Chung, Melanie Emonson, Oscar W Murphy, Paul B Fitzgerald (2023). Experienced Meditators Show Multifaceted Attention-Related Differences in Neural Activity. Mindfulness.
  5. Neil W. Bailey, Kate E. Hoy, Caley M. Sullivan, Brienna Allman, Nigel C. Rogasch, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Paul B Fitzgerald (2023). Concurrent Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electroencephalography Measures are Associated with Antidepressant Response from rTMS Treatment for Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports.
  6. Bailey NW (2022). Stroop Task (Book Chapter). Handbook of Assessment in Mindfulness Research. Springer.
  7. Bailey NW (2022). Emotional Stroop Task (Book Chapter). Handbook of Assessment in Mindfulness Research. Springer.
  8. Melissa Osborn, Suhasini Shankar, Oliver Szymanski, Kate Gunningham, Bridget Caldwell, Magelage Prabhavi N Perera, Jessica Michael, Michael Wang, Paul B Fitzgerald, Neil W Bailey (2022). Meta-analysis provides weak evidence for an effect of mindfulness on neural activity related to error-processing in healthy individuals only. Mindfulness.
  9. Bailey NW, Geddes H, Zannettino I, Humble G, Payne J, Baell O, Emonson M, Chung SW, Hill AT, Rogasch N, Hohwy J, Fitzgerald PB (2022). Meditators probably show increased behaviour-monitoring related neural activity. Mindfulness.
  10. Bailey NW, Hoy KE (2020). The Promise of Artificial Neural Networks, EEG, and MRI for Alzheimer’s Disease. Clinical Neurophysiology.
  11. Bailey, N., Comte, W., Chambers, R., Bartlett, L., Connaughton, S., & Hassed, C. (2023). The Impact of an Online Mindfulness Program on Self-Compassion, Prosocial Behavior, and Trait Mindfulness. Mindfulness.
  12. Bailey NW, Krepel N, van Dijk H, Leuchter AF, Vila-Rodriguez F, Blumberger DM, Downar J, Wilson A, Daskalakis ZJ, Carpenter LL, Corlier J, Arns M, Fitzgerald PB (2020). Resting EEG theta connectivity and alpha power to predict rTMS response in depression: A non-replication from the ICON-DB consortium. Clinical Neurophysiology.
  13. Wang, M. Y., Freedman, G., Raj, K., Fitzgibbon, B. M., Sullivan, C., Tan, W. L., ... & Bailey, N. W. (2020). Mindfulness meditation alters neural activity underpinning working memory during tactile distraction. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 20(6), 1216-1233.
  14. Bailey NW, Gabrielle Freedman, Kavya Raj, Kara N Spierings, Lara R Piccoli, Caley M Sullivan, Sung W Chung, Aron T Hill, Nigel C Rogasch, Paul B Fitzgerald (2020). Mindfulness meditators show enhanced accuracy and different neural activity during working memory. Mindfulness.
  15. Payne JR, Baell O, Geddes H, Fitzgibbon B, Emonson M, Hill AT, Van Dam NT, Humble G, Fitzgerald PB, Bailey NW (2020). Experienced meditators exhibit no differences to demographically-matched controls in theta phase synchronisation, P200, or P300 during an auditory oddball task. Mindfulness.
  16. Bailey, N. W., & West, D. (2020). Are the COVID19 restrictions really worth the cost? A comparison of estimated mortality in Australia from COVID19 and economic recession. arXiv preprint arXiv:2005.03491. 
  17. Bailey NW, West D (2020). The calculus of death shows the COVID lock-down is clearly worth the cost. The Conversation. Read over 50,000 times.
  18. Bailey NW, Opie JL, Hassed CS, Chambers R (2019). Meditation Practice, Dispositional Mindfulness, Personality and Program Outcomes in Mindfulness Training for Medical Students. Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-Professional Journal.
  19. Bailey NW, Raj K, Freedman G, Rogasch NC, Fitzgibbon B, Van Dam N, Fitzgerald PB (2019). Mindfulness meditators do not show differences in electrophysiological measures of error processing. Mindfulness.
  20. Bailey, N. W., Freedman, G., Raj, K., Sullivan, C. M., Rogasch, N. C., Chung, S. W., ... & Fitzgerald, P. B. (2019). Mindfulness meditators show altered distributions of early and late neural activity markers of attention in a response inhibition task. PLoS One, 14(8), e0203096. 
  21. Bailey NW, Hoy KE, Rogasch NC, Thomson RH, McQueen S, Elliot D, Sullivan CM, Fulcher BD, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB (2018). Differentiating responders and non-responders to rTMS treatment for depression after one week using resting EEG connectivity measures. Journal of Affective Disorders.
  22. Bailey NW, Hassed CS, Chambers R, Owen J, Jones A, Wootten A (2018). Evidence based guidelines for mindfulness in schools: A guide for teachers and principals. Smiling Mind White Paper.
  23. Bailey NW, Chambers R, Wootten A, Hassed CS (2018). Commentary regarding Johnson et al (2017) “A randomized controlled evaluation of a secondary school mindfulness program for early adolescents: Do we have the recipe right yet?”. Mindfulness.
  24. Bailey NW, Nguyen J, Bialylew E, Corin SE, Gilbertson T, Chambers R, Fitzgerald PB (2018). Effect on well-being from an online mindfulness intervention: 'Mindful in May'. Mindfulness.
  25. Bailey NW, Hoy KE, Rogasch NC, Thomson RH, McQueen S, Elliot D, Sullivan CM, Fulcher BD, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB (2018). Responders to rTMS for depression show increased fronto-midline theta and theta connectivity compared to non-responders. Brain Stimulation.
  26. Bailey NW, Rogasch NC, Hoy KE, Maller JJ, Segrave RA, Sullivan CM, Fitzgerald PB (2017). Increased gamma connectivity during working memory retention following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury.
  27. Bailey NW, Bridgman TK, Marx W, Fitzgerald PB (2016). Asthma and mindfulness: is the mechanism of action of breathing retraining techniques for asthma an increase in mindfulness? Mindfulness.
  28. Bailey NW, Lewis, PM, Thomson, RH, Maller, JJ, Junor P, Fitzgerald PB (2016). Does exposure to diagnostic ultrasound modulate human nerve responses to magnetic stimulation? Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology.
  29. Bailey NW, Hoy KE, Maller JJ, Upton DJ, Segrave RA, Fitzgibbon BM, Fitzgerald PB (2015). Neural evidence that conscious awareness of errors is reduced in depression following a traumatic brain injury. Biological Psychology.
  30. Bailey NW, Thomson RH, Hoy KE, Henandez-Pavon JC, Fitzgerald PB (2015). Letter to the Editor regarding: TDCS increases cortical excitability: Direct evidence from TMS-EEG. Cortex.
  31. Bailey, N.W., Hoy, K.E., Maller, J.J., Segrave, R.A., Thomson, R.H., Williams, N., Daskalakis, Z.J., Fitzgerald, P.B. (2014). An exploratory analysis of Go/Nogo event related potentials in major depression and depression following traumatic brain injury. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging.
  32. Bailey, N.W., Segrave, R.A., Hoy, K.E., Maller, J.J., Fitzgerald, P.B. (2014). Impaired upper alpha synchronization during working memory retention in depression and depression following traumatic brain injury. Biological Psychology.
  33. Coyle, H^, Bailey N^, Ponsford J, Hoy KE. Clinical symptoms, cognitive performance and cortical activity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). medRxiv, doi.org/10.1101/2022.06.05.22275980, 2022.  ^these authors contributed equally.
  34. Coyle, H^, Bailey N^, Ponsford J, Hoy KE (2023). Recovery of clinical, cognitive and cortical activity measures following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): a longitudinal investigation. Cortex. ^these authors contributed equally
  35. Coyle, H. L.^, Bailey, N. W.^, Ponsford, J., & Hoy, K. E. (2022). Investigation of neurobiological responses to Theta Burst Stimulation during recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Behavioural Brain Research. ^these authors contributed equally
  36. Miljevic  A., Bailey N.W., Murphy O.W., Perera M.P.N., Fitzgerald, P.B. (2023). Alterations in EEG connectivity in individuals with depression: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders.
  37. Perera, MPN, Bailey NW, Murphy, OW, Mallawaarachchi S, Sullivan C, Hill AT, Fitzgerald PB (2023). Home-based Individualised Alpha Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Improves Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Preliminary Evidence from a Randomized, Sham-controlled Clinical Trial. Depression and Anxiety.
  38. Hussey D., Taylor H., Nicholas P., Hoy K., Bailey N., Tanglay O., Young I.M., Doyen S., Sughrue M.E., Fitzgerald P.B. (2023). Functional connectivity analysis of the depression connectome provides potential markers and targets for transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Affective Disorders.
  39. Perera, M. P. N., Mallawaarachchi, S., Bailey, N. W., Murphy, O. W., & Fitzgerald, P. B. (2022). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is Associated with Increased Engagement of Frontal Brain Regions Across Multiple Event Related Potentials. Psychological Medicine.
  40. Perera, M.P.N, Mallawaarachchi, S., Bailey, N.W., Murphy, O.W., Fitzgerald, P.B. (2022). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is associated with increased electroencephalographic (EEG) delta and theta oscillatory power but reduced delta connectivity. Journal of Psychiatric Research.
  41. Davis, M.C., Hill, A.T., Fitzgerald, P.B., Bailey, N.W., Sullivan, C., Stout, J.C., Hoy, K.E. (2023). Medial prefrontal transcranial alternating current stimulation for apathy in Huntington’s disease. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry.
  42. Davis, M. C., Hill, A. T., Fitzgerald, P. B., Bailey, N. W., Stout, J. C., & Hoy, K. E. (2023). Examining neurophysiological correlates of non-motor symptoms in late premanifest and early-stage manifest Huntington’s disease. Clinical Neurophysiology.
  43. Davis, M.C., Fitzgerald, P.B., Bailey, N.W., Sullivan, C., Stout, J.C., Hill, A.T., Hoy, K.E. (2023). Effects of medial prefrontal transcranial alternating current stimulation on neural activity and connectivity in people with Huntington’s disease and neurotypical controls. Brain Research.
  44. Hoy KE, Emonson MRL^, Bailey N^, Humble G, Coyle, H, Rogers C, & Fitzgerald PB (2021). Investigating neurophysiological markers of symptom severity in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. ^these authors contributed equally
  45. Hoy KE, Emonson MRL, Bailey N, Rogers C, Coyle H, Stockman FS, & Fitzgerald PB (2022). Randomized controlled trial of intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation for Alzheimer’s disease: impact on functional connectivity and cognition. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.02.21.22271264
  46. Hoy KE, Coyle, H^, Gainsford K^, Hill A, Bailey N, & Fitzgerald PB. (2022). Investigating neurophysiological effects of a short course of tDCS for cognition in schizophrenia: a target engagement study. medRxiv, doi.org/10.1101/2022.03.02.22271807.
  47. Milijevic A, Bailey NW, Vila-Rodriguez F, Herring S, Fitzgerald PB (2021). EEG-connectivity: a fundamental guide and checklist for optimal study design and evaluation. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging.
  48. Wang, M. Y., Bailey, N. W., Payne, J. E., Fitzgerald, P. B., & Fitzgibbon, B. M. (2020). A Systematic Review of Pain-Related Neural Processes in Expert and Novice Meditators. Mindfulness.
  49. Miljevic A, Bailey NW, Herring S, Fitzgerald PB (2019). Potential predictors of depressive relapse following repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders.
  50. Perera MPN, Bailey NW, Herring SE, Fitzgerald PB (2018). Electrophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder: a systematic review of the electroencephalographic literature. Journal of Anxiety Disorders.
  51. Hoy KE, Bailey NW, Arnold S, Windsor K, John J, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB (2015). The effect of gamma-tACS on working memory performance in healthy controls. Brain and Cognition.
  52. Hoy KE, Bailey NW, Michael M, Fitzgibbon, B, Rogasch, N, Saeki T, Fitzgerald PB. (2015). Enhancement of working memory and task related oscillatory activity following intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in healthy controls. Cerebral Cortex.
  53. Barnby JM, Bailey NW, Chambers R, Fitzgerald PB (2015). How similar are the changes in neural activity resulting from mindfulness practice in contrast to spiritual practice? Consciousness and Cognition.
  54. Hoy KE, Bailey NW, Arnold SL, Fitzgerald PB. (2015). The effect of tDCS on gamma activity and working memory in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research.
  55. Hoy, K. E., Emonson, M. R., Bailey, N., Rogers, C., Coyle, H., Stockman, F., & Fitzgerald, P. (2022). Gamma connectivity predicts response to intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Alzheimer's disease: A randomised controlled trial. Neurobiology of Aging.
  56. Hoy KE, Coyle, H, Gainsford G, Hill A, Bailey NW, Fitzgerald PB (2021). Investigating neurophysiological markers of impaired cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research.
  57. Perera, MPN, Mallawaarachchi, S, Miljevic, A, Bailey, NW, Herring, SE, Fitzgerald, PB (2020). Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): A meta-analysis of randomised, sham-controlled trials. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
  58. Roelofs C, Krepel N, Corlier J, Carpenter L, Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis Z, Tendolkar I, Wilson A, Downar J, Bailey NW, Blumberger D, Vila-Rodriguez F, Leuchter A, Arns M (2020). Individual alpha frequency proximity associated with rTMS outcome: An independent replication study from the ICON-DB consortium. Clinical Neurophysiology.
  59. Hassed C, Flighty A, Chambers R, Hosemans D, Bailey N, Kazantzis N, Connaughton S, Lee S (2020). Advancing the Assessment of Mindfulness-Based Meditation Practice: Psychometric Evaluation of the Mindfulness Adherence Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research.
  60. Muphy O, Segrave R, Hoy K, Wong D, Bailey NW, Fitzgerald PB (2020). Transcranial random noise stimulation is more effective than than transcranial direct current stimulation for enhancing working memory in healthy individuals: Behavioural and electrophysiological Evidence. Brain Stimulation.
  61. Muphy O, Segrave R, Hoy K, Wong D, Bailey NW, Fitzgerald PB (2019). Individuals with Depression Display Abnormal Modulation of Neural Oscillatory Activity during Working Memory Encoding and Maintenance. Biological Psychiatry.
  62. Che X, Cash R, Chung SW, Bailey NW, Fitzgerald PB, Fitzgibbon BM (2019). The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex as a flexible hub mediating behavioural as well as local and distributed neural effects of social support context on pain: A theta burst stimulation and TMS-EEG study. Neuroimage.
  63. Hoy KE, Whitty D, Bailey NW, Fitzgerald PB (2016). Preliminary investigation of the effects of γ-tACS on working memory in schizophrenia. Journal of Neural Transmission.
  64. Philpott A, Cummins TDR, Bailey NW, Churchyard A, Fitzgerald PB, Georgious-Karistianis N (2016). Cortical inhibitory deficits in Huntington’s Disease are not influenced by gender. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging.
  65. Philpott AL, Fitzgerald PB, Bailey NW, Churchyard A, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Cummins TDR. (2016). A GABBR2 gene variant modifies pathophysiology in Huntington's disease. Neuroscience Letters.
  66. Chung SW, Sullivan C, Rogasch N, Hoy K, Bailey NW, Cash R, Fitzgerald P (2018). The effects of individualised intermittent theta burst stimulation in the prefrontal cortex: a TMS-EEG study. Human Brain Mapping.
  67. Fitzgibbon, B.M., Kirkovski, M., Bailey, NW, Thomson, R., Eisenberger, N., Enticott, P. Fitzgerald, P.B. (2017). Low-Frequency brain stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the negative impact of social exclusion among those high in personal distress. Social Neuroscience.
  68. Philpott AL, Cummins TDR, Bailey NW, Churchyard A, Fitzgerald PB, Georgiou-Karistianis N (2016). Cortical inhibitory deficits in premanifest and early Huntington’s disease. Behavioural Brain Research.
  69. Chung, S. W., Lewis, B. P., Rogasch, N. C., Saeki, T., Thomson, R. H., Hoy, K. E., Bailey NW, Fitzgerald, P. B. (2017). Demonstration of short-term plasticity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with theta burst stimulation: A TMS-EEG study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 128(7), 1117-1126. 
  70. Rogasch NC, Sullivan C, Thomson RH, Rose NS, Bailey NW, Fitzgerald PB, Farzan F, Hernandez-Pavon JC (2016). Analysing concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalographic data: a review and introduction to the open-source TESA software. NeuroImage
  71. Rogasch N.C., Thomson R.H., Farzan F., Fitzgibbon B.M., Bailey N.W., Hernandez-Pavon J.C., Daskalakis Z.J., Fitzgerald P.B. (2014) Removing artifacts from TMS-EEG recordings using independent component analysis: importance for assessing prefrontal and motor cortex network properties. NeuroImage.
  72. Maller JJ, Thomson RH, Pannek K, Bailey N, Lewis PM, Fitzgerald PB. (2014). Volumetrics relate to the development of depression after traumatic brain injury. Behavioural Brain Research.
  73. Cao, T., Thomson, R.H., Bailey, N.W., Rogasch, N.C., Segrave, R.A., Maller, J.J., Daskalakis, Z.J., Fitzgerald, P.B. (2013). A near infra-red study of blood oxygenation changes resulting from high and low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Brain Stimulation.
  74. Thomson, R.H., Cleve, T.J., Bailey, N.W., Rogasch, N.C., Maller, J.J., Daskalakis, Z.J., Fitzgerald, P.B. (2012). Blood oxygenation changes modulated by coil orientation during prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation. Brain Stimulation.
  75. Maller, J.J., Thomson, R.H.S., Pannek, K., Rose, S.E., Bailey, N., Lewis, P.M., Fitzgerald, P.B. (2014). The (eigen)value of diffusion tensor imaging to investigate depression after traumatic brain injury. Human Brain Mapping.