Antibiotic resistance is rapidly rising internationally. Many bacterial infections are now very difficult, and sometimes impossible, to treat. Gram negative bacteria are the pointy end of this growing problem, including very common bacteria such as E. Coli. Antibiotic resistance is proportional to use. The more antibiotics used, the more resistance develops and spreads. This is both in individuals (e.g. with the pneumonia bacteria - pneumococcus) and for populations in different countries. Decreasing the total amounts of antimicrobial used in people and agriculture, decreasing corruption in countries around the world, adopting a One Health approach and ensuring people and food animals have access to “safe” water will all make major contributions to controlling antimicrobial resistance. Presented by Professor Peter Collignon AM. Professor ANU Medical School. Executive Director, ACT Pathology. Infectious Diseases Physician and Microbiologist, Canberra Hospital.